What is an example of an oncologic emergency?
Radiation-related dermatitis, cardiovascular disease, esophagitis, cystitis, sexual dysfunction, and depression are common. 38 Adverse reactions can occur at varying times posttreatment, ranging from those that resolve within a few months to new cancers occuring a decade or more after treatment.
What are the most common oncologic emergencies?
The common oncologic emergencies include Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) and Superior Mediastinal Syndrome (SMS), Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), Hyperleukocytosis and Febrile Neutropenia. SVCS denotes compression, obstruction or thrombosis of SVC and SMS denotes SVCS and tracheal compression.
How many oncologic emergencies are there?
Cauda equina syndrome. Superior vena cava obstruction. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) Disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Is hypercalcemia an oncologic emergency?
Two oncologic emergencies are hypercalcemia of malignancy and tumor lysis syndrome. Pharmacists play an essential role in appropriately managing the pharmacotherapeutic agents used for prevention and treatment of oncologic emergencies in order to improve quality of life, even in the setting of terminal illness.
How are oncologic emergencies treated?
Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and intravenous stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in cancer patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.
What are oncologic conditions?
Oncology is a medical specialty that focuses on diagnosing, treating, and preventing cancer. Cancer occurs when abnormal cells replicate uncontrollably and spread throughout the body. Recent discoveries in genetics and biology have revolutionized cancer care. Today, many types of cancer are treatable.
What is a hematologic emergency?
Hematologic emergencies may be defined as sudden or unexpected life-threatening events in clinical hematology and oncology which require immediate action predominantly based on clinical judgements and supported only by investigations that can be expected to produce results rapidly.
What are the signs and symptoms of tumor lysis syndrome?
Symptoms of TLS include:
- muscle cramps or twitches.
- numbness or tingling.
- decreased urination.
What is a pediatric oncologic emergency?
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Reports / May 2011. www.ahcmedia.com. lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency characterized by a triad of hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia, and it is often complicated by secondary renal fail- ure and symptomatic hypocalcemia.
What is SVC obstruction?
SVC obstruction is a narrowing or blockage of the superior vena cava (SVC), which is the second largest vein in the human body. The superior vena cava moves blood from the upper half of the body to the heart.
Why is febrile neutropenia considered an oncologic emergency?
The depth and duration of neutropenia correlate with the risk of developing infection and death 1. Episodes of febrile neutropenia (fn) are considered an oncologic emergency. Among cancer patients presenting with an episode of fn, one series found that 30% had microbiologically confirmed bacteremia 2.