What is the p53 gene and how does it relate to cancer?


What is the role of p53 in cancer?

By stopping cells with mutated or damaged DNA from dividing, p53 helps prevent the development of tumors. Because p53 is essential for regulating DNA repair and cell division, it has been nicknamed the “guardian of the genome.”

What does the p53 gene promote?

Activated p53 promotes cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair and/or apoptosis to prevent the propagation of cells with serious DNA damage through the transactivation of its target genes implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis.

Is the p53 gene good?

p53, famously dubbed ‘The Guardian of the Genome’, is arguably the most significant gene for cancer suppression. Somatic loss of function of p53 underpins tumor progression in most epithelial cancers and many others besides.

How often is p53 mutated in cancer?

The p53 gene contains homozygous mutations in ~50–60% of human cancers. About 90% of these mutations encode missense mutant proteins that span ~190 different codons localized in the DNA-binding domain of the gene and protein.

Can p53 cure cancer?

In addition, the wild-type p53 protein responds to a wide variety of cancer treatments including chemotherapy and irradiation, often killing and repairing the normal cells (homeostasis) with wild-type p53 and killing the cancer cells that fail to repair cellular defects.

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Which chromosome is p53 located on?

The results show that the human p53 gene is located on chromosome 17. In addition, Southern analysis of hybrids prepared from human cells containing a chromosome 17 translocation allowed regional localization of the human p53 gene to the most distal band on the short arm of this chromosome (17p13).

Does everyone have p53 gene?

We just have to hope it doesn’t make the mistake in p53! In fact, these kinds of mutations can happen to anyone. Most people that get cancer actually have both of their p53 gene copies mutated, just from random chance.

What does p53 positive mean?

Marks et al. reported that p53 positivity was defined as a single malignant breast epithelial cell with positive nuclear staining for p53 (19). Martinazzi et al. reported that some nuclei with mutant p53 protein staining were considered positive (20).

How does p53 gene therapy work?

In cases where the DNA damage is irreparable, the p53 gene initiates a process called apoptosis that destroys the cancer cell before it reproduces itself. The p53 gene can also limit blood flow to tumors, which prevents growth and alerts nearby immune cells to attack cancer cells.