What chemo is vesicant?
Vesicant chemotherapy agents include: Dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mechlorethamine, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, paclitaxel, streptozocin, tenoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine.
How is vesicant chemotherapy administered?
Peripheral vesicants are administered by gravity infusions or i.v. bolus and should not be infused using an infusion pump since the pump may continue to deliver a vesicant into the tissue until the pump alarm is triggered (AIII).
What is the difference between vesicants and irritants?
Vesicant: Medication that may causes severe and/or irreversible tissue injury and necrosis. Irritant: Medication that can cause local inflammatory reactions at the infusion site, which may include: burning, swelling, pain, inflammation, tightness, or phlebitis.
Is Methotrexate a vesicant or irritant?
Extravasation management table
|Drug name||Class/clinical procedure||Antidote|
|Methotrexate||Non-irritant (neutral)||Not indicated|
|Mitomycin||Vesicant||Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 99% solution)|
|Mitozantrone||Irritant with vesicant properties||No recommended antidote|
|Nivolumab||Non-irritant (neutral)||Not indicated|
How do you manage infiltration?
Some possible treatments are:
- Elevate the site as much as possible to help reduce swelling.
- Apply a warm or cold compress (depending on the fluid) for 30 minutes every 2-3 hours to help reduce swelling and discomfort.
- Medication-If recommended, medicine for extravasations is given within 24 hours for best effect.
How long does it take for veins to return to normal after chemo?
Blown veins require medical treatment, but they do not usually result in long-term damage to the vein and generally heal in 10–12 days.
What are vesicant precautions?
Precautions for preventing extravasation from vesicant drugs
Avoid inserting the catheter into bending areas, such as the antecubital fossa. Consider the areas that were previously punctured when considering where to insert the catheter.
Which drug is most risky for extravasation?
Chemotherapeutic agents have obvious deleterious effects when extravasation occurs and can lead to more severe injury. These drugs can be classified as irritants or vesicants, depending on the potential for localised toxicity and tissue damage.
- thiopentone [pH 10.5],
- methohexitone [pH 11.5–12.2],
- phenytoin [pH 12].
What is a vesicant medication?
Vesicants: Drugs that can result in tissue necrosis or formation of blisters when accidentally infused into tissue surrounding a vein. They include Actinomycin D, Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Idarubicin, Mitomycin C, Vinblastine, Vindesine, Vincristine, and Vinorelbine.
How can extravasation be prevented?
Ensure that the drug has been properly diluted before injection or infusion. Dilution reduces the amount of vesicant that would reach subcutaneous tissue if extravasation occurs. Dilution also helps you to detect edema or complaints of pain before the entire dose has been administered.
What does extravasation mean?
Listen to pronunciation. (ek-STRA-vuh-SAY-shun) The leakage of blood, lymph, or other fluid, such as an anticancer drug, from a blood vessel or tube into the tissue around it.
What is a non vesicant drug?
Non-vesicants are IV solutions and medication that do not cause ischemia or necrosis.